The Ordeal–ชัยชนะของการปฏิวัติรัสเซีย

ศ.สัญชัย สุวังบุตร
ภาคีสมาชิก

The Ordeal เป็นนวนิยายชุดขนาดยาวเชิงประวัติศาสตร์รวม ๓ เล่มจบ ซึ่งเป็นงานประพันธ์ของอะเล็กเซย์ ตอลสตอย นักเขียนเรืองนามของสหภาพโซเวียต  งานประพันธ์เรื่องนี้เขียนขึ้นในช่วงที่รัฐบาลบอลเชวิคกำลังรณรงค์สร้างชาติรัสเซียใหม่บนเส้นทางสังคมนิยมและประเทศเพิ่งฟื้นตัวจากความผันผวนของสงครามกลางเมืองรัสเซีย (ค.ศ. ๑๙๑๘–๑๙๒๑)  The Ordeal แบ่งเป็น ๓ เล่ม คือ The Sisters, 1918 และ Bleak Morning เนื้อหาครอบคลุมเหตุการณ์ช่วงเวลาก่อนและหลังสงครามโลกครั้งที่ ๑ การปฏิวัติเดือนกุมภาพันธ์ และการปฏิวัติเดือนตุลาคม ค.ศ. ๑๙๑๗  เรื่องราวทั้งหมดสะท้อนผ่านชีวิตและประสบการณ์ของกลุ่มปัญญาชนที่สังกัดชนชั้นกระฎุมพี ปัญญาชนเหล่านี้แปลกแยกจากการปฏิวัติ ค.ศ. ๑๙๑๗ และท่ามกลางการเปลี่ยนผ่านทางสังคมในช่วงความโกลาหลปั่นป่วนทางการเมืองจากระบอบซาร์สู่ระบอบสังคมนิยม พวกเขาถูกกระแสการปฏิวัติพัดพาให้เข้าร่วมในชะตากรรมที่ประเทศกำลังเผชิญอยู่ และในท้ายที่สุดก็ค้นพบความหมายของชีวิตและเข้าใจความหมายแห่งอุดมการณ์ปฏิวัติและระบอบสังคมนิยมThe Ordeal ได้รับยกย่องว่าเป็นวรรณกรรมต้นแบบที่ดีเด่นของแนวความคิดสัจนิยมแนวสังคมนิยม (Socialist Realism) และเป็นวรรณกรรมคลาสสิกของโซเวียต  หนังสือถูกถ่ายทอดเน้นภาษายุโรปต่าง ๆ กว่า ๕๐ ภาษา และได้ชื่อว่าเป็นหนังสือที่ได้รับความนิยมมากที่สุดในบรรดาวรรณกรรมโซเวียตที่ถ่ายทอดเป็นภาษาต่างประเทศระหว่าง ค.ศ. ๑๘๕๐–๑๙๖๐  หนังสือชุดนี้ไม่เพียงทำให้ความปรารถนาของผู้ประพันธ์ที่จะสร้างประวัติศาสตร์การปฏิวัติรัสเซียให้มีชีวิตในโลกหนังสือและการประพันธ์เป็นจริงเท่านั้น แต่ยังทำให้ตอลสตอยมีชื่อเสียงเป็นที่รู้จักกันดีทั้งในและนอกประเทศ  หนังสือชุดนี้ถูกจัดพิมพ์ในสหภาพโซเวียตรวม ๕๖ ครั้ง และจัดพิมพ์เป็นภาษาต่าง ๆ กว่า ๓๐ ครั้ง  การจัดพิมพ์ใหม่ใน ค.ศ. ๒๐๑๗ เพื่อร่วมฉลองวาระ ๑๐๐ ปีการปฏิวัติรัสเซีย (๑๙๑๗/๒๐๑๗) จึงเป็นการย้อนพินิจเหตุการณ์การปฏิวัติเดือนตุลาคม ค.ศ. ๑๙๑๗ เพื่อทบทวนอดีตและหาข้อสรุปที่เป็นบทเรียนใหม่เพื่อการก้าวไปข้างหน้า

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