ศาสตร์พระราชาและการลดความเหลื่อมล้ำ

ศ. ดร.ปราณี ทินกร
ภาคีสมาชิก

บทความนี้ได้รวบรวมข้อมูลจากพระปฐมบรมราชโองการ พระราชกรณียกิจและโครงการในพระราชดำริ รวมทั้งพระราชดำรัสเกี่ยวกับปรัชญาของเศรษฐกิจพอเพียง ของพระบาทสมเด็จพระปรมินทรมหาภูมิพลอดุลยเดช บรมนาถบพิตร โดยเฉพาะในส่วนที่พระองค์ทรงมุ่งมั่นในการแก้ไขปัญหาความอดอยากหิวโหย และปัญหาความยากจนให้แก่ราษฎร ผู้เขียนประมวลว่า พระองค์ท่านทรงมีพระปรีชาสามารถในศาสตร์หลายแขนงรวมถึงเศรษฐศาสตร์ และได้ทรงใช้หลักวิชาการเศรษฐศาสตร์ร่วมกับวิทยาศาสตร์ในการแก้ไขปัญหาความยากจน การอุทิศพระองค์เป็นผู้นำในการแก้ไขปัญหาความยากจนของพระองค์ท่านได้มีส่วนทำให้บุคคลและหน่วยงานต่างๆ มองเห็นความสำคัญของปัญหาดังกล่าว

ผู้เขียนชี้ให้เห็นว่าปัญหาความยากจนเป็นปัญหาความเหลื่อมล้ำที่ถือได้ว่ารุนแรงที่สุด เพราะกลุ่มคนจนคือกลุ่มประชากรที่มีรายได้อยู่ในระดับต่ำสุดเมื่อเทียบกับประชากรกลุ่มอื่นๆ  ปัจจุบันนี้คนจนในประเทศไทยได้ลดลงมาจากที่เคยมีเกินครึ่งของประเทศ เหลือเพียงร้อยละ 8.6 ของประชากร อย่างไรก็ตาม ความเหลื่อมล้ำของการกระจายรายได้ระหว่างประชากรกลุ่มต่างๆ แม้ว่าจะลดลงบ้าง แต่ก็ลดลงน้อยและช้ามาก และยังคงมีความเหลื่อมล้ำค่อนข้างสูง นอกจากนี้ยังมีความเหลื่อมล้ำด้านอื่นๆ โดยเฉพาะด้านการถือครองทรัพย์สิน ซึ่งมีความเหลื่อมล้ำสูงกว่าด้านรายได้ รัฐบาลจึงควรมีนโยบายเพื่อแก้ไขปัญหาเหล่านี้ให้บรรเทาลง มิฉะนั้นแล้วอาจเกิดผลกระทบต่อเสถียรภาพทางการเมือง และเสถียรภาพทางเศรษฐกิจได้

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Academy of Moral and Political Sciences

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