รัฐบัญญัติมอร์ริลล์ (ค.ศ. ๑๘๖๒) กับการพัฒนาการอุดมศึกษาของสหรัฐอเมริกา : กรณีมหาวิทยาลัยแลนด์แกรนต์

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ภาคีสมาชิก

รัฐบัญญัติมอร์ริลล์ ค.ศ. ๑๘๖๒ หรือรัฐบัญญัติวิทยาลัยแลนด์แกรนต์ ค.ศ. ๑๘๖๒ (Land-Grant College Act of 1862) เป็นรัฐบัญญัติที่กำหนดให้จัดสรรที่ดินสาธารณะในทุกมลรัฐหรือดินแดนอิสระที่ยังไม่มีสถานะเป็นมลรัฐ เพื่อให้นำไปหารายได้สำหรับเป็นทุนในการก่อตั้งวิทยาลัยที่เน้นการเรียนการสอนด้านเกษตรกรรมและการช่าง รวมทั้งวิชาชีพอื่นที่สามารถนำไปประยุกต์ใช้ในชีวิตจริง เช่น คหกรรมศาสตร์ สัตวแพทย์  รัฐบัญญัติฉบับนี้เสนอโดยนายจัสติน สมิท มอร์ริลล์ (Justin Smith Morrill) สมาชิกสภาผู้แทนราษฎรสหรัฐอเมริกา พรรคริพับลิกัน (Republican Party) จากมลรัฐเวอร์มอนต์ (Vermont) ซึ่งมีความคิดว่า เยาวชนทุกคนควรมีโอกาสและเสรีภาพในการศึกษาระดับสูงตามความต้องการและสติปัญญาของพวกเขา โดยไม่มีข้อกีดกั้นด้านสถานะ โอกาส เพศ หรือที่ตั้งถิ่นฐาน  ทั้งนี้ รัฐบาลกลางควรจะสนับสนุนให้ทุกมลรัฐก่อตั้งสถานศึกษาระดับอุดมศึกษาที่เน้นการเรียนการสอนวิชาเกษตรกรรมและการช่าง เพื่อช่วยให้ประชาชนส่วนใหญ่ที่มีฐานะยากจนได้รับโอกาสเพื่อนำความรู้ไปพัฒนาตนเองและสังคม

รัฐบัญญัติมอร์ริลล์ช่วยให้การอุดมศึกษาของสหรัฐอเมริกามีความก้าวหน้าและขยายตัวไปทั่วประเทศ ทำให้ประชาชนได้รับโอกาสทางการศึกษาอย่างเสรี  ทำให้มหาวิทยาลัยแลนด์แกรนต์เป็นเสาหลักด้านการศึกษาของมลรัฐต่าง ๆ  เปิดโอกาสให้แต่ละสถาบันได้วิจัย คิดค้นนวัตกรรมและพัฒนาหลักสูตร ตลอดจนสร้างเอกลักษณ์ของแต่ละสถาบันตามศักยภาพของตนเองและตามความต้องการของมลรัฐและประเทศ ข้อเสนอแนะสำหรับมหาวิทยาลัยในประเทศไทย คือ ผู้บริหารมหาวิทยาลัยไทยจะต้องเข้มแข็ง อดทน เสียสละ และทำงานหนัก เพื่อยืนหยัดฝ่าฟันอุปสรรคให้ลุล่วงไปได้ รวมทั้งสามารถนำจุดแข็งของมหาวิทยาลัยแลนด์แกรนต์มาเป็นตัวอย่างในการปรับเปลี่ยนการบริหารงาน วิชาการ หลักสูตร การวิจัย ตลอดจนค้นหาเอกลักษณ์และทิศทางของมหาวิทยาลัยให้สอดคล้องกับความต้องการของท้องถิ่น

Academy of Moral and Political Sciences

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326 thoughts on “รัฐบัญญัติมอร์ริลล์ (ค.ศ. ๑๘๖๒) กับการพัฒนาการอุดมศึกษาของสหรัฐอเมริกา : กรณีมหาวิทยาลัยแลนด์แกรนต์

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